What Happened This Day In History
Or should we say this month?
Below is a chronological timetable of historical events that occurred this month in history. Historical facts of the day in the areas of military, politics, science, music, sports, arts, entertainment and more.
50 years ago, on 1 July 1964, Pierre Monteux died in Hancock, Maine at the age of 89.
300 years ago, on 2 July 1714, Christoph Willibald Gluck was born in Erasbach, Upper Palatinate.
50 years ago, on 2 July 1964, US President Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act of 1964, ending racial discrimination in all places affected by interstate commerce. It guaranteed voting rights and granted aid to desegregate schools.
200 years ago, on 3 July 1814, American forces and their Indian allies crossed the Niagara River and captured the British garrison of Fort Erie.
100 years ago, on 3 July 1914, in London, Walter Nuvel introduced Sergey Prokofiev (23) to Sergey Diaghilev.
50 years ago, on 3 July 1964, Lester Maddox, owner of the Pickrick Restaurant in Atlanta, forced three black divinity students out of his establishment at gunpoint. They were seeking service under the Civil Rights Act signed into law yesterday.
200 years ago, on 5 July 1814, US troops defeated British forces at the Chippawa River near Niagara.
200 years ago, on 6 July 1814, the Quadriga was restored to its place on the Brandenburg Gate. This symbol of the Prussian state was removed by Napoléon in 1806. It was brought back to Berlin by Marshal Blücher.
200 years ago, on 6 July 1814, rebels under Simón Bolívar were defeated outside Caracas. Citizens of the capital began fleeing the city to Barcelona.
50 years ago, on 6 July 1964, Malawi, under Queen Elizabeth II and Prime Minister Hastings Kamuzu Banda, was proclaimed independent of Great Britain in ceremonies in Blantyre.
200 years ago, on 7 July 1814, King Friedrich August I of Saxony returned to Dresden to resume his rule.
200 years ago, on 7 July 1814, Sir Walter Scott published his novel Waverley; or, ‘Tis Sixty Years Since anonymously. He feared that publishing a novel would damage his reputation as a poet.
150 years ago, on 7 July 1864, after Cosima von Bülow visited Richard Wagner (51) for a week in the Villa Pellet on Lake Starnberg (during the king’s absence), Hans von Bülow arrived, producing the most famous musical ménage à trois. In the week before von Bülow’s arrival, Wagner and Cosima consummated their union. A servant will testify that when von Bülow found the locked bedroom door, he went “to his living room, threw himself on the ground, beat on the floor with his hands and feet like a man possessed, and cried and even screamed.” (Köhler, 460)
50 years ago, on 7 July 1964, Federal Judge Sidney Mize ordered public schools in Jackson, Biloxi, and Leake County, Mississippi to desegregate beginning in September. Mize said his ruling was based on previous court rulings and not the facts since “the cranial capacity and brain size of the average Negro is approximately 10% less than that of the average white persons of similar age and size…”
100 years ago, on 8 July 1914, when government troops attempted to abandon Guadalajara, their escape was blocked by rebels at El Castillo, who killed and captured thousands of them.
50 years ago, on 8 July 1964, a mob of 300 whites attacked a movie theatre in Tuscaloosa, Alabama throwing rocks and bottles after a rumor spread that a white man escorted a black woman into the theatre. Police used tear gas and fire hoses to disperse them.
50 years ago, on 10 July 1964, a white man participating in an attempt to integrate a movie theatre in Lake City, Florida was shot in the stomach.
50 years ago, on 12 July 1964, in the largest battle of the war so far, Viet Cong forces inflicted heavy losses on South Vietnamese government troops in Chuong Thien Province.
50 years ago, on 12 July 1964, when a group of blacks seek service at a restaurant in Henderson, North Carolina, they were set upon by whites. A melee went on for three hours involving about 300 people. Five people were injured, 17 arrested.
200 years ago, on 13 July 1814, King Vittorio Emmanuele I of Sardinia created the Royal Carabinieri.
100 years ago, on 13 July 1914, an Austrian emissary in Sarajevo reported to his government that he found no evidence that the Serbian government was involved in the murder of Archduke Franz Ferdinand.
100 years ago, on 14 July 1914, after initial resistance, the Hungarian government agreed to send an ultimatum to Serbia and attack if necessary.
100 years ago, on 14 July 1914, in London, Sergey Diaghilev introduces Sergey Prokofiev (23) to his main conductor, Pierre Monteux. Prokofiev played his First Piano Concerto and some other works for them and is favorably received.
100 years ago, on 14 July 1914, after recent serious defeats on the battlefield, Mexican President Huerta resigned, leaving the job of negotiating with the soon-to-be victorious revolutionaries to his Chief Justice Francisco Sebastián Carbajal y Gual. Huerta went into exile in Europe.
100 years ago, on 14 July 1914, Robert Goddard of Worcester, Massachusetts received a US patent for a liquid fuel rocket.
250 years ago, on 15 July 1764, conspirators, backed by some military units, attacked Schlüsselberg Fortress, St. Petersburg, hoping to rescue deposed Tsar Ivan VI, now 24 and imprisoned since infancy. Upon reaching his cell, the conspirators discovered that the guards have carried out their orders. At the first sign of the attack, they stabbed Ivan to death.
150 years ago, on 15 July 1864, Alfred Nobel received a Swedish patent for nitroglycerin.
100 years ago, on 18 July 1914, having organized a successful campaign to overturn laws adverse to Indians in South Africa, Mohandas K. Gandhi sailed from Cape Town, South Africa to Great Britain, never to return.
100 years ago, on 18 July 1914, Labor leader Joe Hill was convicted of murder by a Salt Lake City court and sentenced to death.
50 years ago, on 18 July 1964, after a rally in Harlem (New York City) to protest police brutality, blacks began four days of rioting. They began destroying property, looting businesses, and battling with police who responded with nightsticks and thousands of warning shots. Over the next four days, one person would be killed, 121 injured, 185 arrested.
150 years ago, on 19 July 1864, after a long siege, Imperial Chinese troops took Nanking in heavy fighting. This essentially ended the Taiping Rebellion.
50 years ago, on 20 July 1964, rioting by blacks in New York spread to the Bedford-Stuyvesant area.
200 years ago, on 21 July 1814, by order of King Ferdinand VII, the Inquisition was restored in Spain.
150 years ago, on 21 July 1864, a dentist named Dr. Mahlon Loomis, living in Washington, made a sketch of something he has been working on for years. It was a method of connecting two points telegraphically without the use of wires. It is the earliest known description of radio communication. In October 1866 he successfully performed an experiment to produce this result.
100 years ago, on 21 July 1914, American astronomer Seth Barnes Nicholson discovered Sinope, the ninth moon of Jupiter to be observed from Earth, from the Lick Observatory near San Jose, California.
50 years ago, on 21 July 1964, sectarian violence in Singapore between Chinese and Malays killed 21 people.
50 years ago, on 22 July 1964, a federal court in Atlanta ordered Lester Maddox to admit blacks into his restaurant and motel.
250 years ago, on 23 July 1764, Bostonian James Otis, who in May coined the phrase “No taxation without representation”, published The Rights of the British Colonies Asserted and Proved.
100 years ago, on 23 July 1914, Austrian ambassador Baron Vladimir von Giesl presented his government’s ultimatum to the Serbian foreign ministry in Belgrade. With ten demands it was so worded as to be unacceptable to any government, including allowing Austrian agents to roam freely in Serbia to stifle anti-Austrian propaganda. Serbia was given 48 hours.
50 years ago, on 24 July 1964, Blacks began three days of rioting in Rochester, New York. Five people were killed, 350 injured, and 750 arrested.
50 years ago, on 24 July 1964, Don Rodrigo, an opera by Alberto Ginastera (48) to words of Casona, was performed for the first time, in Teatro Colón, Buenos Aires.
200 years ago, on 25 July 1814, George Stephenson demonstrated the first working steam locomotive, Blücher, at Killington, England. It hauled coal trucks.
200 years ago, on 25 July 1814, British and American forces clashed at the Battle of Lundy’s Lane, west of Niagara Falls. Heavy losses were incurred on both sides, but no victory could be claimed by anyone. The Americans quit the field but the British and colonials did not pursue them.
100 years ago, on 25 July 1914, Serbia accepted the Austro-Hungarian ultimatum with the exception of giving up any sovereignty. Serbia asked Greece for support under treaty obligations. Greece agreed. At 18:30, after breaking relations with Serbia, Ambassador Giesl boarded a train in Belgrade and returned to Vienna. The Serbian government ordered mobilization and moved to Nis. Emperor Franz Josef II ordered the mobilization of Austria-Hungary’s armed forces.
100 years ago, on 26 July 1914, Austria-Hungary rejected the Serbian reply. Montenegro ordered mobilization. First Lord of the Admiralty Winston Churchill ordered the Royal Navy to war station and then publicized this fact, to have “a sobering effect” on Germany and Austria-Hungary.
100 years ago, on 28 July 1914, at noon, Emperor Franz Josef II signed a declaration of war on Serbia. The Russian Council of Ministers ordered a partial mobilization on the Austrian border. Italy ordered all its vessels to home ports.
100 years ago, on 28 July 1914, a jury in Paris ruled that the murder of Gaston Calmette (editor of Le Figaro) by Henriette Caillaux (wife of the French Finance Minister) was a crime of passion and she was therefore not guilty.
100 years ago, on 29 July 1914, Austro-Hungarian artillery began shelling across the Danube into Belgrade, the Serbian capital.
100 years ago, on 29 July 1914, the Cape Cod Canal opened.
150 years ago, on 30 July 1864, Federals who tunneled under the Confederate lines east of Petersburg, Virginia (35 km south of Richmond), planted powder and blew a hole 50 meters long, 20 meters wide and ten meters deep, killing 278 southerners in the process. The hopelessly bungled attempt by the northerners to exploit the breach is called the “Battle of the Crater.” The day left 5,200 total casualties.
100 years ago, on 30 July 1914, even though he wished belligerence against Austria-Hungary only, in support of his Serbian allies, Tsar Nikolay II of Russia orders full mobilization against Austria and Germany.
100 years ago, on 31 July 1914, at midnight, Germany delivered an ultimatum to Russia to demobilize within twelve hours. Germany sent another ultimatum to France, requiring to know within 18 hours whether France will remain neutral in the event of war between Germany and Russia. The government of the Ottoman Empire ordered a mobilization to take effect 3 August. The French cabinet authorized general mobilization. A general financial panic set in with the declaration of war by Austria-Hungary on Serbia. Financial houses around the world closed their doors. In a Paris cafe, the French socialist leader Jean Jaurès was shot to death by a royalist, apparently upset at M. Jaurès’ less than enthusiastic view of the impending war. The government of Belgium ordered general mobilization, effective at midnight. The Paris Opéra closed due to the impending conflict. It would not open again for 18 months.
50 years ago, on 31 July 1964, the US space probe Ranger 7 took and transmitted 4,316 close up photographs of the Moon before crashing into it. They were the best images of the Moon to date and showed that a manned landing was possible.